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3. Deverbal Nouns and Gerund - Part 1

Nouns derived from verb are called Deverbal Noun (DVN) because such nouns cannot take subject or object like a verb and hence deverbalised. Such nouns can however function partially as verb only in the form of verb ending in ‘ing’. Nouns in this form are called Gerund. However a gerund is verbal only when it takes object. Otherwise it is deverbal, functioning as a noun or noun phrase. Verbs cannot take Adjective. Transitive verbs take passive voice when object becomes subject. Verbs need to be modified by adverb. Most verbs cannot take another verb as an object. Verbs cannot become subject. Verbs cannot become object of preposition. Transitive verbs must have object. All these constraints can be removed by using Deverbal Noun or Deverbal Gerund. Similarly Verbal Gerund can help remove constraints of Noun, behaving as ‘verb inside and noun outside’. Nouns for example cannot take adverb or object which is possible with verbal gerund. Though verbs are mostly stative and dynamic, Deverbalised Nouns can have meaning of Substance, Outcome, and Event and not always Activity or Action depending upon the verb it is derived from and its use.

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4. Deverbal Nouns and Gerund - Part 2

Examples with Notes 4) Use of Action Noun and Verbal Gerund after the Preposition ‘by’ Often an answer to a HOW question involves an agent and action or activity by the agent for a common object. In


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