2. Parts of Speech 1
Certain words cannot function the way certain other words can function.
For example we do not say teachering or teachered but teacher or teach. Similarly it is wrong to say ‘instructed manual’. What is correct is ‘instruction manual’. We don’t say ‘boy good’ but ‘good boy’.
Thus each word has typical character which restricts its application to different functions of naming, renaming, action, connecting, qualifying etc which we need for expressing or describing. Traditional grammar classifies such functions into 8 types namely: the noun, the pronoun, the verb, the adjective, the determiner (including Quantifiers and Articles which are considered Adjective), the adverb, the preposition, the conjunction, and the interjection. Thenot only se functions or parts of speech can be a word or but some can also be phrase or a clause.
A NOUN is a word that names a person (man/carpenter/ Mr.Dutta), place (river/ Delhi/ home), thing (plant/ car/ bird), activity/process (swimming/ song/ sports), idea/concept (theory/ plan/justice) or emotions (love/ fear/ anger)
Complete study of NOUN comprises of 1) Noun types: Proper, Common <class(individual/collective)/ material>, Abstract <attributive, verbal>; 2) Compound Nouns; 3) Noun Modifiers; 4) Inflections <gender, number (singular/plural)>; 5) functions <as subject, object, object of preposition, subject complement, object complement, apposition>; 6) Noun Phrase and Clause; 7) Gerund as noun; 8) Infinitive as noun 9) Verbal Action noun and Substance noun
The PRONOUN is a word which substitutes an antecedent noun or noun phrase, except for ‘I’ and ‘YOU’ which do not necessarily need antecedent and therefore called 1st person and second person respectively.
Examples of Pronouns are (Subject/Personal Pronoun: he/she), (Object pronoun: them), (Reflexive: themselves), (Possessive: hers/ theirs), (Reciprocal: one another), (Demonstrative: those/ former), (Relative: whose/ that), (Indefinite: somebody/ anyone),(Interrogative: what/ who); (Distributive: each, neither of)
A main VERB is a word used to describe an action (sleep/run/guess), state (be/stand/ exist), occurrence (happen/ become) or experience (feel) of a noun/pronoun which functions as Subject.
Complete study of VERB comprises of 1) Classification by grammatical functions <avalent, intransitive, mono transitive, di-transitive, complex transitive, linking verb>; 2) Classification by stativity < Stative, Dynamic>; 3) Thematic Relation 4) Classification by Alternation 5)Verb Processes < Material, Behavioural, Mental, Verbal, Existential, Relational, Existential>; 6) Verb classes by Function < Factive-Reporting, Non-Factive, Counter Factive, Causative, Catenative>; 7) Gerund as verb; 8) Tense & Aspect; Auxiliary and passive auxiliary; 9) Modal etc
An ADJECTIVEmodifies a noun/ noun phrase/ pronoun by describing (Chinese people/ innocent child/ flying squirrel/ manure made by kitchen composting),
DETERMINERS are a group of special Adjectives. They are used to quantify (three/ all/ entire/ more/enough), specify or demonstrate (the/this/those/my – possessive determiner), inquire to identify (which phone/ what topic). Articles a, the, an etc also belong to this category.
Adjectives are always immediately preceded or followed by noun depending upon type except when it is a subject complement.
Complete study of ADJECTIVES comprise of 1)Adjective types <descriptive, quantitative, demonstrative, pronominal>; 2) Determiners; 3) Inflections <number, comparison>; 4) Attributive; 5) Post-positive/ post modifiers; 6) Predicate Adjective 7) Adjective Complements; 8) Restrictiveness; 9) Prepositional Phrase; 10) Participial Adjectives; 11) Compound Adjectives
An ADVERB refers to any element in a sentence used to modify a verb, adjective, another adverb, or even an entire clause when it is called sentence adverb. Adverbs can be single words, phrases (called adverbial phrases), or entire clauses (called adverbial clauses)
Complete study of Adverb comprise of Adverb of frequency (usually, sometimes), manner (cheerfully, efficiently), time (early, tomorrow), place (inside, everywhere), degree (fairly, slowly). Sentence adverbs or Adverb of Evaluation modify complete sentence. These are adverbs of certainty (obviously, apparently), attitude (hopefully, frankly), opinion (rightly, stupidly). Finally we have Conjunctive adverbs for transitioning from one independent clause to another. Examples are: however, still, accordingly etc.
CONJUNCTION unlike conjunctive adverb (which is used for transitioning to another independent clause) join independent clauses (and, but ,yet etc) or independent to dependent clause as subordinating conjunction (after, since, because, although, if etc.).
INTERJECTIONS function to express emotions or sudden bursts of feelings such as: hooray, alas, cool, oops
Everyone (1) came but(2) Surbhi. [1. Pronoun; 2.Preposition]
We had(1) our afternoon(2) tea. [1.Verb; 2. Adjective]
Two (1) of my friends got(2) married this year. [1. Adjective; 2.Verb]
Two of my friends (1) got married this year (2). [1. Noun; 2.Adverb]
Two(1) and two makes four(2). [1.Noun; 2.Noun]
I am sorry for (1) being late (2). [1.Preposition; 2.Noun]
I am sorry for being late. [Adjective]
He is usually (1) never (2) late (3). All Adverbs]
She is in her late (1) fifties (2). [1. Adjective; 2.Noun]
She is in her late fifties. [Adjective]
She is in her late fifties. [Noun]
Swimming (1) keeps one fit(2). [1.Noun; 2.Adjective]
To walk regularly (1) is good for health (2). [1.Noun 2.Adjective]
<- Article #1 of 11 on Sentence Basics Article #3 of 11 on Sentence Basics ->